Man Ray, born Emmanuel Radnitzky (1890 – 1976) was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in France. He was a significant contributor to the Dada and Surrealist movements. He produced major works in a variety of media but considered himself a painter above all. He was best known for his photography, and he was a renowned fashion and portrait photographer. Man Ray is also noted for his work with photograms, which he called "rayographs" in reference to himself.